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The Model C's new configuration, soon named Symmetrical Tokamak , intended to simply verify the Soviet results, while the others would explore ways to go well beyond T Experiments on the Symmetrical Tokamak began in May , and by early the next year they had confirmed the Soviet results.

The stellarator was abandoned, and PPPL turned its considerable expertise to the problem of heating the plasma. Two concepts seemed to hold promise.

PPPL proposed using magnetic compression, a pinch-like technique to compress a warm plasma to raise its temperature, but providing that compression through magnets rather than current.

PLT was designed specifically to "give a clear indication whether the tokamak concept plus auxiliary heating can form a basis for a future fusion reactor".

This is a key point in the development of the tokamak; fusion reactions become self-sustaining at temperatures between 50 and million Celsius, PLT demonstrated that this was technically achievable.

During this period, Robert Hirsch took over the Directorate of fusion development in the U. Atomic Energy Commission. Hirsch felt that the program could not be sustained at its current funding levels without demonstrating tangible results.

He began to reformulate the entire program. What had once been a lab-led effort of mostly scientific exploration was now a Washington-led effort to build a working power-producing reactor.

By the lates, tokamaks had reached all the conditions needed for a practical fusion reactor; in PLT had demonstrated ignition temperatures, the next year the Soviet T-7 successfully used superconducting magnets for the first time, [67] Doublet proved to be a success and led to almost all future designs adopting this "shaped plasma" approach.

It appeared all that was needed to build a power-producing reactor was to put all of these design concepts into a single machine, one that would be capable of running with the radioactive tritium in its fuel mix.

The race was on. During the s, four major second-generation proposals were funded worldwide. In the US, Hirsch began formulating plans for a similar design, skipping over proposals for another stepping-stone design directly to a tritium-burning one.

The excitement was so widespread that several commercial ventures to produce commercial tokamaks began around this time. Funding by the Riggs Bank led to this effort being known as the Riggatron.

JET quickly took the lead in critical experiments, moving from test gases to deuterium and increasingly powerful "shots". But it soon became clear that none of the new systems were working as expected.

A host of new instabilities appeared, along with a number of more practical problems that continued to interfere with their performance. Even when working perfectly, plasma confinement at fusion temperatures, the so-called " fusion triple product ", continued to be far below what would be needed for a practical reactor design.

Through the mids the reasons for many of these problems became clear, and various solutions were offered. However, these would significantly increase the size and complexity of the machines.

A new period of pessimism descended on the fusion field. At the same time these experiments were demonstrating problems, much of the impetus for the US's massive funding disappeared; in Ronald Reagan declared the s energy crisis was over, [71] and funding for advanced energy sources had been slashed in the early s.

This was originally started through an agreement between Richard Nixon and Leonid Brezhnev , but had been moving slowly since its first real meeting on 23 November During the Geneva Superpower Summit in November , Reagan raised the issue with Mikhail Gorbachev and proposed reforming the organization.

The two leaders emphasized the potential importance of the work aimed at utilizing controlled thermonuclear fusion for peaceful purposes and, in this connection, advocated the widest practicable development of international cooperation in obtaining this source of energy, which is essentially inexhaustible, for the benefit for all mankind.

Design work began in , and since that time the ITER reactor has been the primary tokamak design effort worldwide.

Positively charged ions and negatively charged electrons in a fusion plasma are at very high temperatures, and have correspondingly large velocities.

In order to maintain the fusion process, particles from the hot plasma must be confined in the central region, or the plasma will rapidly cool.

Magnetic confinement fusion devices exploit the fact that charged particles in a magnetic field experience a Lorentz force and follow helical paths along the field lines.

The simplest magnetic confinement system is a solenoid. A plasma in a solenoid will spiral about the lines of field running down its center, preventing motion towards the sides.

However, this does not prevent motion towards the ends. The obvious solution is to bend the solenoid around into a circle, forming a torus.

However, it was demonstrated that such an arrangement is not uniform; for purely geometric reasons, the field on the outside edge of the torus is lower than on the inside edge.

This asymmetry causes the electrons and ions to drift across the field , and eventually hit the walls of the torus. The solution is to shape the lines so they do not simply run around the torus, but twist around like the stripes on a barber pole or candycane.

In such a field any single particle will find itself at the outside edge where it will drift one way, say up, and then as it follows its magnetic line around the torus it will find itself on the inside edge, where it will drift the other way.

This cancellation is not perfect, but calculations showed it was enough to allow the fuel to remain in the reactor for a useful time.

The two first solutions to making a design with the required twist were the stellarator which did so through a mechanical arrangement, twisting the entire torus, and the z-pinch design which ran an electrical current through the plasma to create a second magnetic field to the same end.

Both demonstrated improved confinement times compared to a simple torus, but both also demonstrated a variety of effects that caused the plasma to be lost from the reactors at rates that were not sustainable.

The tokamak is essentially identical to the z-pinch concept in its physical layout. The issue was how "twisty" the fields were; fields that caused the particles to transit inside and out more than once per orbit around the long axis torus were much more stable than devices that had less twist.

This ratio of twists to orbits became known as the safety factor , denoted q. This increases stability by orders of magnitude. When the problem is considered even more closely, the need for a vertical parallel to the axis of rotation component of the magnetic field arises.

The Lorentz force of the toroidal plasma current in the vertical field provides the inward force that holds the plasma torus in equilibrium.

While the tokamak addresses the issue of plasma stability in a gross sense, plasmas are also subject to a number of dynamic instabilities.

One of these, the kink instability , is strongly suppressed by the tokamak layout, a side-effect of the high safety factors of tokamaks.

The lack of kinks allowed the tokamak to operate at much higher temperatures than previous machines, and this allowed a host of new phenomena to appear.

One of these, the banana orbits , is caused by the wide range of particle energies in a tokamak — much of the fuel is hot but a certain percentage is much cooler.

Due to the high twist of the fields in the tokamak, particles following their lines of force rapidly move towards the inner edge and then outer.

As they move inward they are subject to increasing magnetic fields due to the smaller radius concentrating the field.

The low-energy particles in the fuel will reflect off this increasing field and begin to travel backwards through the fuel, colliding with the higher energy nuclei and scattering them out of the plasma.

This process causes fuel to be lost from the reactor, although this process is slow enough that a practical reactor is still well within reach.

One of the first goals for any controlled fusion device is to reach breakeven , the point where the energy being released by the fusion reactions is equal to the amount of energy being used to maintain the reaction.

The ratio of input to output energy is denoted Q , and breakeven corresponds to a Q of 1. A Q of at least one is needed for the reactor to generate net energy, but for practical reasons, it is desirable for it to be much higher.

Once breakeven is reached, further improvements in confinement generally lead to a rapidly increasing Q. That is because some of the energy being given off by the fusion reactions of the most common fusion fuel, a mix of deuterium and tritium , is in the form of alpha particles.

These can collide with the fuel nuclei in the plasma and heat it, reducing the amount of external heat needed. At some point, known as ignition , this internal self-heating is enough to keep the reaction going without any external heating, corresponding to an infinite Q.

In the case of the tokamak, this self-heating process is maximized if the alpha particles remain in the fuel long enough to guarantee they will collide with the fuel.

As the alphas are electrically charged, they are subject to the same fields that are confining the fuel plasma. The amount of time they spend in the fuel can be maximized by ensuring their orbit in the field remains within the plasma.

In the early s, studies at Princeton into the use of high-power superconducting magnets in future tokamak designs examined the layout of the magnets.

They noticed that the arrangement of the main toroidal coils meant that there was significantly more tension between the magnets on the inside of the curvature where they were closer together.

Considering this, they noted that the tensional forces within the magnets would be evened out if they were shaped like a D, rather than an O.

This became known as the "Princeton D-coil". This was not the first time this sort of arrangement had been considered, although for entirely different reasons.

The safety factor varies across the axis of the machine; for purely geometrical reasons, it is always smaller at the inside edge of the plasma closest to the machine's center because the long axis is shorter there.

In the s, it was suggested that one way to counteract this and produce a design with a higher average q would be to shape the magnetic fields so that the plasma only filled the outer half of the torus, shaped like a D or C when viewed end-on, instead of the normal circular cross section.

One of the first machines to incorporate a D-shaped plasma was the JET , which began its design work in This decision was made both for theoretical reasons as well as practical; because the force is larger on the inside edge of the torus, there is a large net force pressing inward on the entire reactor.

The D-shape also had the advantage of reducing the net force, as well as making the supported inside edge flatter so it was easier to support.

This layout has been largely universal since then. One problem seen in all fusion reactors is that the presence of heavier elements causes energy to be lost at an increased rate, cooling the plasma.

During the very earliest development of fusion power, a solution to this problem was found, the divertor , essentially a large mass spectrometer that would cause the heavier elements to be flung out of the reactor.

This was initially part of the stellarator designs, where it is easy to integrate into the magnetic windings. However, designing a divertor for a tokamak proved to be a very difficult design problem.

Another problem seen in all fusion designs is the heat load that the plasma places on the wall of the confinement vessel. There are materials that can handle this load, but they are generally undesirable and expensive heavy metals.

When such materials are sputtered in collisions with hot ions, their atoms mix with the fuel and rapidly cool it.

A solution used on most tokamak designs is the limiter , a small ring of light metal that projected into the chamber so that the plasma would hit it before hitting the walls.

This eroded the limiter and caused its atoms to mix with the fuel, but these lighter materials cause less disruption than the wall materials.

When reactors moved to the D-shaped plasmas it was quickly noted that the escaping particle flux of the plasma could be shaped as well.

Over time, this led to the idea of using the fields to create an internal divertor that flings the heavier elements out of fuel, typically towards the bottom of the reactor.

There, a pool of liquid lithium metal is used as a sort of limiter; the particles hit it and are rapidly cooled, remaining in the lithium.

This internal pool is much easier to cool, due to its location, and although some lithium atoms are released into the plasma, its very low mass makes it a much smaller problem than even the lightest metals used previously.

As machines began to explore this newly shaped plasma , they noticed that certain arrangements of the fields and plasma parameters would sometimes enter what is now known as the high-confinement mode , or H-mode, which operated stably at higher temperatures and pressures.

Operating in the H-mode, which can also be seen in stellarators, is now a major design goal of the tokamak design.

Finally, it was noted that when the plasma had a non-uniform density would give rise to internal electrical currents. This is known as the bootstrap current.

This allows a properly designed reactor to generate some of the internal current needed to twist the magnetic field lines without having to supply it from an external source.

This has a number of advantages, and modern designs all attempt to generate as much of their total current through the bootstrap process as possible.

By the early s, the combination of these features and others collectively gave rise to the "advanced tokamak" concept.

This forms the basis of modern research, including ITER. Tokamaks are subject to events known as "disruptions" that cause confinement to be lost in milliseconds.

There are two primary mechanisms. In one, the "vertical displacement event" VDE , the entire plasma moves vertically until it touches the upper or lower section of the vacuum chamber.

In the other, the "major disruption", long wavelength, non-axisymmetric magnetohydrodynamical instabilities cause the plasma to be forced into non-symmetrical shapes, often squeezed into the top and bottom of the chamber.

When the plasma touches the vessel walls it undergoes rapid cooling, or "thermal quenching". In the major disruption case, this is normally accompanied by a brief increase in plasma current as the plasma concentrates.

Quenching ultimately causes the plasma confinement to break up. In the case of the major disruption the current drops again, the "current quench".

The initial increase in current is not seen in the VDE, and the thermal and current quench occurs at the same time. ITER is designed to handle of these events over its lifetime.

For modern high-energy devices, where plasma currents are on the order of 15 mega amperes in ITER , it is possible the brief increase in current during a major disruption will cross a critical threshold.

This occurs when the current produces a force on the electrons that is higher than the frictional forces of the collisions between particles in the plasma.

In this event, electrons can be rapidly accelerated to relativistic velocities, creating so-called "runaway electrons" in the relativistic runaway electron avalanche.

These retain their energy even as the current quench is occurring on the bulk of the plasma. When confinement finally breaks down, these runaway electrons follow the path of least resistance and impact the side of the reactor.

These can reach 12 megaamps of current deposited in a small area, well beyond the capabilities of any mechanical solution.

The occurrence of major disruptions in running tokamaks has always been rather high, of the order of a few percent of the total numbers of the shots.

In currently operated tokamaks, the damage is often large but rarely dramatic. In the ITER tokamak, it is expected that the occurrence of a limited number of major disruptions will definitively damage the chamber with no possibility to restore the device.

A large amplitude of the central current density can also result in internal disruptions , or sawteeth, which do not generally result in termination of the discharge.

In an operating fusion reactor, part of the energy generated will serve to maintain the plasma temperature as fresh deuterium and tritium are introduced.

However, in the startup of a reactor, either initially or after a temporary shutdown, the plasma will have to be heated to its operating temperature of greater than 10 keV over million degrees Celsius.

In current tokamak and other magnetic fusion experiments, insufficient fusion energy is produced to maintain the plasma temperature, and constant external heating must be supplied.

Chinese researchers set up the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak EAST in which is believed to sustain million degree celsius plasma sun has 15 million degree celsius temperature which is required to initiate the fusion between hydrogen atoms, according to the latest test conducted in EAST test conducted in November Since the plasma is an electrical conductor, it is possible to heat the plasma by inducing a current through it; the induced current that provides most of the poloidal field is also a major source of initial heating.

The heating caused by the induced current is called ohmic or resistive heating; it is the same kind of heating that occurs in an electric light bulb or in an electric heater.

The heat generated depends on the resistance of the plasma and the amount of electric current running through it.

But as the temperature of heated plasma rises, the resistance decreases and ohmic heating becomes less effective. It appears that the maximum plasma temperature attainable by ohmic heating in a tokamak is 20—30 million degrees Celsius.

To obtain still higher temperatures, additional heating methods must be used. The current is induced by continually increasing the current through an electromagnetic winding linked with the plasma torus: the plasma can be viewed as the secondary winding of a transformer.

This is inherently a pulsed process because there is a limit to the current through the primary there are also other limitations on long pulses.

Tokamaks must therefore either operate for short periods or rely on other means of heating and current drive. A gas can be heated by sudden compression.

In the same way, the temperature of a plasma is increased if it is compressed rapidly by increasing the confining magnetic field.

In a tokamak, this compression is achieved simply by moving the plasma into a region of higher magnetic field i. Since plasma compression brings the ions closer together, the process has the additional benefit of facilitating attainment of the required density for a fusion reactor.

Magnetic compression was an area of research in the early "tokamak stampede", and was the purpose of one major design, the ATC. The concept has not been widely used since then, although a somewhat similar concept is part of the General Fusion design.

Neutral-beam injection involves the introduction of high energy rapidly moving atoms or molecules into an ohmically heated, magnetically confined plasma within the tokamak.

The high energy atoms originate as ions in an arc chamber before being extracted through a high voltage grid set. The term "ion source" is used to generally mean the assembly consisting of a set of electron emitting filaments, an arc chamber volume, and a set of extraction grids.

A second device, similar in concept, is used to separately accelerate electrons to the same energy. The much lighter mass of the electrons makes this device much smaller than its ion counterpart.

The two beams then intersect, where the ions and electrons recombine into neutral atoms, allowing them to travel through the magnetic fields.

Once the neutral beam enters the tokamak, interactions with the main plasma ions occur. This has two effects. One is that the injected atoms re-ionize and become charged, thereby becoming trapped inside the reactor and adding to the fuel mass.

The other is that the process of being ionized occurs through impacts with the rest of the fuel, and these impacts deposit energy in that fuel, heating it.

This form of heating has no inherent energy temperature limitation, in contrast to the ohmic method, but its rate is limited to the current in the injectors.

Ion source extraction voltages are typically on the order of 50— kV, and high voltage, negative ion sources -1 MV are being developed for ITER.

While neutral beam injection is used primarily for plasma heating, it can also be used as a diagnostic tool and in feedback control by making a pulsed beam consisting of a string of brief 2—10 ms beam blips.

Deuterium is a primary fuel for neutral beam heating systems and hydrogen and helium are sometimes used for selected experiments.

High-frequency electromagnetic waves are generated by oscillators often by gyrotrons or klystrons outside the torus.

If the waves have the correct frequency or wavelength and polarization, their energy can be transferred to the charged particles in the plasma, which in turn collide with other plasma particles, thus increasing the temperature of the bulk plasma.

Various techniques exist including electron cyclotron resonance heating ECRH and ion cyclotron resonance heating. This energy is usually transferred by microwaves.

Plasma discharges within the tokamak's vacuum chamber consist of energized ions and atoms and the energy from these particles eventually reaches the inner wall of the chamber through radiation, collisions, or lack of confinement.

The inner wall of the chamber is water-cooled and the heat from the particles is removed via conduction through the wall to the water and convection of the heated water to an external cooling system.

Turbomolecular or diffusion pumps allow for particles to be evacuated from the bulk volume and cryogenic pumps, consisting of a liquid helium-cooled surface, serve to effectively control the density throughout the discharge by providing an energy sink for condensation to occur.

When done correctly, the fusion reactions produce large amounts of high energy neutrons. Being electrically neutral and relatively tiny, the neutrons are not affected by the magnetic fields nor are they stopped much by the surrounding vacuum chamber.

The neutron flux is reduced significantly at a purpose-built neutron shield boundary that surrounds the tokamak in all directions.

Shield materials vary, but are generally materials made of atoms which are close to the size of neutrons because these work best to absorb the neutron and its energy.

Good candidate materials include those with much hydrogen, such as water and plastics. Boron atoms are also good absorbers of neutrons.

Thus, concrete and polyethylene doped with boron make inexpensive neutron shielding materials. Once freed, the neutron has a relatively short half-life of about 10 minutes before it decays into a proton and electron with the emission of energy.

When the time comes to actually try to make electricity from a tokamak-based reactor, some of the neutrons produced in the fusion process would be absorbed by a liquid metal blanket and their kinetic energy would be used in heat-transfer processes to ultimately turn a generator.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the fusion reaction device. For other uses, see Tokamak disambiguation.

This article's lead section may be too long for the length of the article. Please help by moving some material from it into the body of the article.

Please read the layout guide and lead section guidelines to ensure the section will still be inclusive of all essential details.

Please discuss this issue on the article's talk page. May Main article: ITER. See also: Neutral beam injection. See also: Radio frequency heating and Dielectric heating.

Their work created tritium, but they did not separate it chemically to demonstrate its existence. This was performed by Luis Alvarez and Robert Cornog in Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory.

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Retrieved 28 June M; Hayzen, A. The eruption was by far the largest eruption at Okmok since at least the early 13th century. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Mount Okmok Aerial view looking across Okmok Caldera. Mount Okmok. Retrieved Aleut Dictionary. Fairbanks: Alaska Native Language Center.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Bibcode : Geo Smithsonian Institution Global Volcanism Program. It was in Alaska". Ars Technica. January 2, Page A1.

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